1 John Harkrider did costume and stage design on Broadway between 1925 and 1942. Minnelli claims that he was an important early influence on his work when he lived in Chicago. Oliver Messel was born in England where he sucessfully worked on sets and costumes for opera, ballet, and film; his Broadway theatrical designs made their debut in 1928. "Hobe-Irwin" is Hobe Erwin who was an interior decorator in New York. He later worked in Hollywood for MGM and Selznick.
2 Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Center for Motion Picture Study (hereafter AMPAS). Special Collections. Folder 18. MGM Art Department/E.J. Mannix File.
3 Downing, Patrick and John Hambley. The Art of Hollywood. London: the Victoria and Albert Museum. 1979, 59. Also quoted in Minnelli,122.
4 This architectural short list of modernists is not at random. Gibbons' relationship to architecture is well documented by himself in his own public relations campaign which he diligently assembled. While not receiving formal or academic training as an architect, Gibbons' father, however, was an accomplished architect from whom Cedric learned the craft as well as the orderliness of running a business. In a sense, Gibbons was a 'poseur' (his studio PR stated that he was born in Dublin in 1893 when he was actually born in Brooklyn in 1890). He received hundreds of letters at MGM asking him for a position at the coveted MGM Art Department. He always responded with a form letter stressing that the design for movie sets required, at least, a degree in "architectural engineering" (implying that he had had one). His secretary, Herta Verkuitz, made sure that requests and questions were all answered. It is in these letters where Gibbons demonstrates his flair for self-aggrandizement. After situating himself within the architectural tradition of Sullivan, Wright and Le Corbusier the letter would state: "Mr. Gibbons' designs were original interpretations of the themes of modern architecture which he applied to motion pictures. Gibbons was first to bring modern architecture to the screen" (memo dated 23 March 1935-emphasis mine. AMPAS. Special Collections. MGM Art Department/Publicity. Folder 44.).
5 For a further discussion of Minnelli's aesthetic interests see James Naremore's The Films of Vincente Minnelli. New York: Cambridge. 1993, 7-50. While Naremore and I cover similar modernist aesthetic and historical concerns of Minnelli, I am putting these tendencies through the historically complex filter of American creativity as they intersect with cultural implications of gender identification. See also Harvey, Stephen. Directed by Vincente Minnelli. New York: Harper and Row for the Museum of Modern Art. 1989, 25-35.
6 In a Shubert press release (anon., c. 1936) we are told that "[Minnelli] lives in a flat on E. 52nd Street which doesn't boast a single piece of chromium plated furniture..." Shubert Archives, New York. See files regarding Minnelli and the programs he designed and produced.
7 I have been fortunate to see this collection firsthand through the gracious approval of Mrs. Lee Minnelli. Unless otherwise noted, all information ascribed to Lee Minnelli was recorded from personal interviews with the author during Summer 1995.
8 Goldberger, Paul. "A Hollywood House Worthy of an Oscar" in The New York Times." 6 November 1980, C10.
9 Albrecht, Donald. Designing Dreams: Modern Architecture in the Movies. New York: Harper and Row. 1986, 91.
10 Gibbons, Cedric. "Interior Decoration Vital Branch of Movie Making" in The Evening World. 29 June 1929. (N. pag.). Aside from sources listed above regarding Gibbons' dwelling and "architectural" designs see Webb, Michael. "Cedric Gibbons and the MGM Style" in Architectural Digest. April 1990. 47:4, 100, 104, 108, 112.
11 Clearly, Gibbons' concerns with precision and efficiency spilled over as an occupational routine. Gibbon's stress on the functional and efficient is clearly reinforced in his letter to Mannix. His concern with MGM's "expensive experiments" in his tightly run ship can only serve to disrupt the contained precision and functioning of his obliging (nay, obedient) department ("I...refuse to work under any conditions with any man designing settings unless he is brought through me...").
12 In Ornament and Architecture (1892) Louis Sullivan suggests that it "would be greatly for our aesthetic good if we should refrain entirely from the use of ornament...[because] we shall have learned...that ornament is mentally a luxury, not a necessity...[w]e feel intuitively that our strong, athletic, and simple forms will carry with the natural ease the raiment of which we dream..." Quoted in Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. 1980. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Rev. and 3rd ed. 1992, 51 (emphasis added). Interestingly, the present day renovation of Grand Central is discussed in terms of gender attributes. The station is said to be "getting a sex change" in that what was once "a temple to the manly cult of work" is now "[emerging] as a shrine to rituals associated with domesticity: dining, shopping and keeping up the house." See The New York Times. 4 February 1996, 27.
13 "It is not possible to move forward and look backwards," writes Miës Van der Rohe, "...he who lives in the past cannot advance" (quoted in Hochman, Elaine S. Architects of Fortune: Miës Van der Rohe and the Third Reich. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1989, xiv). The irony of the functional art/architecture of a modernist such as Miës was that often the living space he designed for an unburdened future became "uninhabitable" as in the case of his Farnsworth House of 1952 which was "[l]ocated on the bank of a river that was heavily infested with mosquitoes on summer evenings, Miës would not allow a screened porch, arguing...that to do so would have ruined the jewel-like design"(ibid. 57).
14 Quoted from the Encyclopaedia Britannica and cited in Albrecht, 90. Gibbon's rejection of Hollywood realism is, of course, more in line with the modernist debate sketched out earlier in this work than with the flamboyant realism that Minnelli would bring to the screen. As Peter Wollen points out, "[m]odernism saw a teleology in the convergence of cubism with industrial techniques and materials and its development toward abstract art."Wollen, Peter. "Out of the Past" in Raiding the Icebox. Bloomington: Indiana U Press. 1993. Pp. 1-34; 17.
15 Ibid., 18. I am indebted to Wollen's essay (and ongoing dialogues) for helping me rethink the historical practices of fin de siècle decadence, creativity, and modernism. Wollen fashions an "alternative modernism" in his most recent work.
16 Bataille, Georges. "The Notion of Expenditure" in Visions of Excess: Selected Writings, 1927-1939. Trans. Alan Stoekl. 1985. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press. 5th ptg. 1993. Pp. 116-129; 124. Quoted in "Out of the Past," 27.
17 Located at the Museum of the City of New York and the Metropolitan Museum of Art are several dozen sketches for his Radio City Music Hall and Shubert productions (At Home Abroad (1935)), Hooray For What?! (1937), and Very Warm For May (1939)). One can discern the fashionable moderne influences of Paul Poiret, Edouard Garcia Benito, Ralph Barton, and Léon Bakst in Minnelli's drawings.
18 Mike Davis finds that, from its inception, Los Angeles ("with its aggressive Present-mindedness"(73)) has founded itself on an "ersatz history"(30). Davis suggests that L.A. "thrives upon a fictional future"(83). See City of Quartz. 1990. New York: Vintage. Rpt. 1992. On the other hand, others have commented on the discontinuity practiced within New York's urban "theatricality." Anselm Haverkamp suggests that New York is precisely the place where one gets "a new sense of the political qua deconstruction" wherein the city is "a place in permanent destruction, in continuous decay, as it seems, but more precisely a city in permanent change, in gender trouble and racial controversy." See "Deconstruction is/as Neopragmatism" in Deconstruction is/in America. New York: New York U Press. 1995, 1-13; 11. De Certeau makes similar claims in that the "place" of New York, is "a city composed of paroxysmal places in monumental reliefs," that allows for transgressive spatial practices. See The Practices of Everyday Life, 91-96.
19 Minnelli, 45. These remarks by Minnelli too closely resemble those made by the character Randy in Designing Woman(1957) that they cannot go unnoticed. When, in the film, Mike (Gregory Peck) questions Randy's masculinity, Randy proceeds to present his wallet photos of his wife and "three" children. Randy choreographs, offers costume and set design suggestions, and gives birth to six feet tall football players attending college in Maine. One can also presume that Randy represents a caricature of Minnelli's creative persona as well as his sense of an obligatory defense of his heterosexual manhood. Of course, Minnelli's off-spring weren't six feet tall; but she sure can knock 'em dead with a song and a dance.
20 Minnelli's effete and urbane demeanor is quite recognizable, for example, in his interview for The Men Who Made Movies. Produced, written and directed by Richard Schickel. 1973.
21 Consider Minnelli's direct use of Dufy, Renoir, and Lautrec in An American in Paris (1951) or his Van Gogh bio-pic, Lust For Life (1956). His surrealist impulses are clearly demonstrated in Yolanda and the Thief (1945), The Pirate (1948) and Father of the Bride (1950).
22 Minnelli recounts that his discovery of Brentano's book store in Chicago opened his love for books. Here he began his foray into the writings of de Maupassant, Chateaubriand, Maugham, Firbank, and Shaw.
23 There are many passages in the Pennell's book recounting Whistler's work which emphasize the painter's palette-undoubtedly attractive to Minnelli's penchant for color. Whistler, according to the voluminous interviews conducted by the Pennells, insisted that "colours should be arranged on the palette..." (Vol. 1, 50) and that there are precise "scientific methods...to produce harmonious effects in line and 'colour grouping'" (ibid., 222). Importantly, for Whistler, "art is a science not because as some painters imagine, it is concerned with laws of light or chemistry of colours or scientific problems in the usual sense, but because it is exact in its methods and in its results as the science of chemistry..."(Vol. 2, 8). Yet at the same time color also disrupts a standardized viewing: "the artist must overload everything with strong contrasts of violent colours. His success with the rich ignorant public is assured if only he succeeds in setting his colours shouting against each other" (Vol. 2, 8). Clearly, Minnelli (cinema's great "colorist") learned much from Whistler's science of art and color as well as how to sell to a "rich ignorant public." Pennell, E. and R. The Life and James McNeil Whistler. Two Volumes. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1909. All subsequent references to the Pennell books will be listed by volume number and page number in the text.
24 Minnelli, 50. Minnelli highlights Whistler as "a pioneer in interior design, introducing blue and white décor and Japanese china to London. He had an affinity for yellow [Minnelli's favorite color], painting walls of his house in its most sunny shading." Whistler, for the second exhibition of his Venetian etchings, decorated the Fine Arts Society gallery-from wall coverings to his tie-in yellow and white.
25 Pennell. Vol. 2, 127. Generally speaking, Minnelli rarely fell upon financial hard times. His contract with the Shuberts in 1936 (The Show Is On) guaranteed him: $3500 to design "all scenery and costumes," $500 per week for staging the shows production (with a guaranteed minimum of $2000, 2% of gross weekly box office receipts as well as 2% of gross weekly box office receipts if the show traveled abroad. Besides this terrific salary, Minnelli had "complete charge of the artistic phases of the entire production." Minnelli's contract is located at the Shubert Archive.
26 Sinfield, Alan. The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde and the Queer Moment. New York: Columbia. 1994, 27. See further James Laver's Dandies. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1968.
27 Barbey D'Aurevilly, Jules. Dandyism. Trans. Douglas Ainslie. New York: PAJ Publications.1988. Originally published Of Dandyism and of George Brummel. London: J.M. Dent & Co. 1897, 33.
28 Benjamin, Walter. Charles Baudelaire. Trans. Harry Zohn. 1976. London: Verson. 3rd ptg. 1989, 37.
29 Baudelaire, Charles. Selected Writings on Art and Literature. Trans. P.E. Charvet. London: Penguin. Rpt. 1992. Originally published as Selected Writings on Art and Artists. London: Penguin. 1972, 393. Baudelaire's relationships with prostitutes, for example, points to the subtle and ironic line on which he viewed the exercise of acting within, yet outside of, the social order placed onto romantic relationships and their conventionalities. In this way, he introduced a visible decadence-certainly a visible decadence of the bourgeois male body-into the figure of the dandy.
30 "One should either be a work of art, or wear a work of art," Wilde would aphorize in "Phrases and Philosophies for the Use of the Young." See The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, 1206.
31 As Barthes stresses, however, irony does not guarantee a permanent disruption of repetitious states. Irony succeeds in its rupturing effect insofar as it "can only add a new code." S/Z, 45.
32 Ellman, Richard. Oscar Wilde. New York: Vintage. 1988, 154, 158.
33 Sinfield considers that a dandified aestheticization of the body as a "purposeful playing of the effeminate, artistic aesthete against the manly, athletic type [is]...a fine instance of a reverse discourse (as proposed by Foucault)"(132).
34 Lord Queensbury (father of Alfred "Bosie" Douglas) sent Wilde one of his cards on which was written: "For Oscar Wilde Posing as a Somdomite[sic]." The Wilde trials (three in all) "constructed a different framework of interpretation" of the 'effeminate' aesthete wherein "Wilde suddenly appeared, suddenly but ineluctably, as one who consorted with male prostitutes. Yet he was still the effeminate dandy. So the two figures coalesced"(Sinfield, 122).
35 Cohen, Ed. Talk on the Wilde Side. New York: Routledge. 1993, 181.
36 For an account of Wilde's visit to America see Ellman's biography. For a discussion of the aesthetic effect on Wilde (and Roosevelt) in light of this trip see my "Queer Angels of History Take It and Leave It From Behind" in The Stanford Humanities Review: Inside the Film Archive: Practice, Theory, Canon. Volume 7.2. Autumn 1999).
37 According to Roosevelt, "Americanism means the virtues of courage, honor, justice, truth, sincerity, and hardihood-the virtues that made America." Roosevelt, Theodore. Ed. Hermann Hagedorn. The Free Citizen: A Summons to Service of the Democratic Ideal. New York: MacMillan. 1956, 59. For an elegant reading of Roosevelt's representation of manhood and nationalism see Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: U of Chicago Press. 1995; Beale, Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press. 1956.
38 Conwell, Joseph Alfred. Manhood's Morning: An Inspiring Character Building Book for Men. 1896. New York: Uplift Books. Rpt. And revised. 1903, 225.
39 Ibid., 140. Here, again, manhood is conjoined with a staunch Americanism wherein the United States represents "the chosen home of the Anglo-Saxon race-the race of virtue, liberty and progress. This race, which America is destined to develop to the highest perfection has, for twelve centuries, been gaining conquests, growing in influence and in civilization until it has become the unrivalled and dominating race of the earth"(296). "Americanism" bespeaks a teleology, marked by the intersection of manhood and racial purity, toward eugenics.
40 Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. New York: Basic Books. 1994, 113.
41 Perlman, Bernard B. Painters of the Ashcan School: The Immortal Eight. New York: Dover. 1979, 89.
42 Richard Ellman reports that "[in] the United States, according to Thomas Beer, at least nine hundred sermons were preached against [Wilde] between 1895 and 1900"(548). After his release from prison "a set of photographs was hawked about American colleges. Young men were being warned of the peril he represented"(575).
43 While Whistler and Beardsley had already articulated their distaste for Wilde before the trial, they were forthright in their public snubs toward him after the trial. A sort of "I told you so" attitude presided over Whistler's attitude. For a list of other frightened and fair weather "friends" of Wilde see Ellman's chapter, "Exile," in Oscar Wilde, 559-589.
44 Sontag, Susan. "Notes on Camp" in Against Interpretation. New York: Anchor. 1986. Originally published by Farrar, Strauss & Giroux. 1966. 275-292; 289. The twentieth-century dandy, as Sontag suggests in another context, "has given rise to a certain kind of witty appreciation of the derelict, inane, démodé objects of modern civilization-the taste for a certain kind of passionate non-art that is known as 'camp.' ("Happenings" in ibid., 263-274; 271). This "appreciation of the derelict" is, then, an appreciation of historical debris. It is pleasure taken in the excess of a manly bourgeois production of history. Andrew Ross posits that "[t]his knowledge about history is the precise moment when camp takes over, because camp involves a rediscovery of history's waste." Not only is a production of camp a "rediscovery of history's waste," but it is an hyperbolized aestheticization of that produced waste. To camp in the age of mechanical reproducibility is to display, re-assign, confuse, and precisely make visible the excess of a purportedly efficient and well-ordered society. Ross, Andrew. No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture. New York: Routledge. 1989; 151. See also my essay, "Queer Angels of History Take It and Leave It from Behind" in the forthcoming Stanford Humanities Review, Fall 1999.
45 There is a [Catholic?] double move on Minnelli's part when he states that, "[w]aste was the cardinal sin. I had learned to recycle my experience in real life and applying them to my creative endeavors. I do it to this day." The process of 'recycling' is, of course, the re-use of disposed waste. There is, as well, a foretelling of decadence in this notion of 'waste as the cardinal sin' in that it recalls the moral lasciviousness of catholic ritual and cardinals so adored by Winckelmann and Wilde. See Minnelli, 38.
46 Quoted in Tinckom, Matthew. "Working Like a Homosexual: Camp Visual Codes and the Labor of Gay Subjects in the MGM Freed Unit" in Cinema Journal. Winter 1996. 35:2. Pp. 24-42; 24. This quote is taken from a larger oral history project at AMPAS. What Tinckom does not quote is instructive in that both the interviewer and Simone are confounded by her remarks. The interviewer clarifies Simone's response by asking her if she meant "his manner:" "Simone: It was soft. Interviewer: Yes. S: You see? I: And yet he was not? S: Ja." See Oral History with Lela Simone. Interview conducted with Rudy Behlmer. Oct. 1990 -Jan. 1991. AMPAS. Oral History Program. Margaret Herrick Library. 1994.
47 Hewitt, Andrew. Political Inversion: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 1996.
48 Minnelli, 51. It is interesting to note, recalling my earlier discussion of American creativity, that Minnelli cites Chicago as the land of Sandburg, Dreiser, and Anderson.
49 The Balaban and Katz merger with Famous Players (later Paramount) took place in November 1925.
50 Kellner, Bruce, ed. Letters of Carl Van Vechten. New Haven: Yale U Press. 1987, 49. I'd like to thank Mark Simon for introducing me to the worlds of both Van Vechten and Florine Stettheimer.
51 And this was not only young talent such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, but older and forgotten writers such as Henry Blake Fuller. Van Vechten was also capable of raising the dead as in the case of Herman Melville.
52 Kellner, Bruce. Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades. Norman: U of Oklahoma Press. 1968, vii.
53 The historical impact of Diaghilev's Scheherazade cannot be underestimated in terms of the New York art scene during the 1920s and 1930s (Van Vechten even named his cat Scheherazade). For a thorough and elegant description of the "dandy/aesthete" audience who attended the Ballet Russe in London and Paris after World War One see Lynn Garafola's Diaghilev's Ballet Russe. Oxford: Oxford U Press. 1989.
54 Minnelli reprimands a New York reviewer's ignorance in not being able to recognize his use of color and accoutrements for Earl Carroll's curtain in the 1931 Vanities which were "particularly...inspired by Bakst and executed by Remisoff and Soudakin for the Ballet Russe." Minnelli, 58.
55 I use the term "slummed" cautiously in relation to Van Vechten and Minnelli. These men were certainly of a specific white upper middle-class milieu, yet simultaneously were "queers" who felt an affinity to those creative souls who were labeled as outsiders by a white masculinist hegemony. One cannot dismiss the economic privilege accorded both Van Vechten and Minnelli, but, I believe, one cannot overlook the emotional and creative connections that these two diverse groups of people shared.
56 Earlier in Chicago, through Brentanos, who published (via Van Vechten) Ronald Firbank in America, Minnelli discovered Firbank, Freud, and Beardsley. Minnelli, 51. Minnelli also worked with Karinska (former dancer with Diaghilev) on the costume designs for The Pirate.
57 Bloemink, Barbara. "Visualizing Sight: Florine Stettheimer and Temporal Modernism" in Florine Stettheimer: Manhattan Fantastica. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. 1995, 71.
58 Sussman, Elisabeth. "Florine Stettheimer: A 1990s Perspective" in ibid., 43.
59 Minnelli, 50 and Sussman, 50.
60 Alfred Stieglitz is another important figure in America's introduction to the International Modernist Movement (His gallery "291" cannot be underestimated for introducing Matisse, Picasso, Picabia, et. al. to the New York cultural scene). But Stieglitz is an odd duck. According to one biographer, Stieglitz had a "thorough distaste not only for ornamentation but for possessions per se..." Lowe, Sue Davidson. Stieglitz: A Memoir/Biography. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. 1983, 52. At the same time, however, his willingness to explore and support a wide array of cultural tastes and creative sensibilities (see my earlier discussion on American creativity) bespeaks a more complicated relationship to the multiple strains of modernism in which he participated.
61 Examples of Stettheimer's set designs and actual sets from the production can be seen in Kellner's Carl Van Vechten: The Irreverent Decades and Florine Stettheimer: Manhattan Fantastica.
62 While most critics were confused by the Cubist entries in the 1913 New York Armory Show (especially Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase), they were also offended by the erotic primitivism of Matisse and Gauguin. Cubism so complicated the traditional discourse of painting that American critics were unable to articulate just exactly what their difficulties were with the paintings. It was easier to vilify Matisse for his figurative work than it was to rethink the critical parameters of art. For a discussion of the critical reception of the Armory Show see Brown, Milton. The Story of the Armory Show. New York: Abbeville Publishers. 2nd ed. 1988.
63 The eroticism, exoticism, and theatricalization of "Orientalist" pleasures in western culture points to the decadent re-appropriation of an otherwise Orientalist discourse which serves to manage and subjugate the Other. As Edward Said remarks in his discussion of Flaubert's "fascination with dissection and beauty" through Oriental culture, "the Orient seems still to suggest not only fecundity but sexual promise (and threat), untiring sensuality, unlimited desire, deep generative energies, [which] is something on which one could speculate..." See Orientalism. New York: Vintage. 1979, 188. More concurrent with Minnelli at this time was André Breton's surrealistic favor (albeit homophobic) with imagery of the Orient that contemporary conservatives saw as decadent and disturbing. "Legitimate Defense (September, 1926) in Maurice Nadeau's The History of Surrealism. Trans. Richard Howard. 1965. Cambridge: Harvard U Press. 4th ptg., 1995. Originally printed New York: Macmillan, 1965. See further Polizzotti, Mark. Revolution of the Mind: The Life of Andre Breton: London: Bloomsbury. 1995.
64 Troy, Hugh. "Never Had a Lesson" in Esquire. June 1937, 99, 138, 141; 99
65 This was the year, as well, that that monument of modernity opened-the Empire State Building. With its striking streamlined design in homage to the modern age, the Empire State Building was considered "the harbinger of the future, the concrete embodiment of man's desire to travel skyward." Its lobby walls are flanked by steel and brass medallions proclaiming the wonders of twentieth century technology and craftsmanship ("Machines," Plumbing," "Elevators," "Heating," "Masonry," "Carpentry"). The then world's largest skyscraper stood as the monument to an efficient and functional world. This symbol of efficiency, however, had its shortcomings. Aside from costing over fifty million dollars to build at the outset of the Depression, one of its well promoted functions failed to be operational. The mooring mast at the top of the structure was to be utilized for dirigible landings. "Although never usable because of violent updrafts," according to Merril Schleier, "the Empire State's mooring mast is indelibly imprinted in everyone's imagination as the site of King Kong's attempt to ward off planes for love's sake." See The Skyscraper in American Art: 1890 - 1931. New York: Da Capo. 1986, 119.
66 To be precise, Jimmy Walker was ousted from office at mid-term. A special election was held in November 1932 when Tammany candidate John P. O'Brien was elected. Fiorella La Guardia won in the regular election of 1933. See further Robb Ellis, Edward. The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History. New York: Old Town Books. 1990, 549-550.
67 Lambert, Eleanor. "Notes on Vincente Minnelli." Unpublished Shubert Theater press release. n.d. Lambert, a leading producer of fashion shows well into the 1970s, was a close friend of Minnelli while he worked in New York. Her influential involvement with the international fashion world had important creative resonances for Minnelli.
68 Birnie, William. "A Chorine Thought and Was Wrong" in World Telegram. 14 November 1936, 3.
69 Anonymous Shubert press release.
70 Hurwood, Marion. "The Show is On." Unpublished Shubert Theater press release. n.d.
71 Anonymous Shubert press release, 3.
72 Minnelli, Vincente. "The Show Must Go On" in Stage. September 1936. Pp. 33-35; 35
73 Hewitt, Andrew. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1996.